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New absolute parameters of components were obtained too. Frequency-domain Hong- Ou -Mandel interference with linear optics. The Hong- Ou -Mandel HOM interference is one of the most fundamental quantum-mechanical effects that reveal a nonclassical behavior of single photons. Two identical photons that are incident on the input ports of an unbiased beam splitter always exit the beam splitter together from the same output port, an effect referred to as photon bunching.
In this Letter, we utilize a single electro-optic phase modulator as a probabilistic frequency beam splitter, which we exploit to observe HOM interference between two photons that are in different spectral modes, yet are identical in other characteristics. Our approach enables linear optical quantum information processing protocols using the frequency degree of freedom in photons such as quantum computing techniques with linear optics. Direct observation of phase-sensitive Hong- Ou -Mandel interference. The quality of individual photons and their ability to interfere are traditionally tested by measuring the Hong- Ou -Mandel photon bunching effect.
However, this phase-insensitive measurement only tests the particle aspect of the quantum interference, leaving out the phase-sensitive aspects relevant for continuous-variable processing. To overcome these limitations we formulate a witness capable of recognizing both the indistinguishability of the single photons and their quality with regard to their continuous-variable utilization. We exploit the conditional nonclassical squeezing and show that it can reveal both the particle and the wave aspects of the quantum interference in a single set of direct measurements. We experimentally test the witness by applying it to a pair of independent single photons retrieved on demand.
Measurement of photon indistinguishability to a quantifiable uncertainty using a Hong- Ou -Mandel interferometer. We present a method for using the Hong- Ou -Mandel HOM interference technique to quantify photon indistinguishability within an associated uncertainty. The method allows the relative importance of various experimental factors affecting the HOM visibility to be identified, and enables the actual indistinguishability, with an associated uncertainty, to be estimated from experimentally measured quantities.
A measurement equation has been derived that accounts for the non-ideal performance of the interferometer. The origin of each term of the equation is explained, along with procedures for their experimental evaluation and uncertainty estimation. The analysis was applied to measurements from an interferometer sourced with photon pairs from a parametric downconversion process.
The measured photon indistinguishably was found to be 0.
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X-ray diving in the center of Sh looking for the driving source of Ou 4. The outflow phenomenon is associated both with the early and the last phase of the stellar evolution. Recently, a unique bipolar outflow with an angular size of 1. Ou 4, nicknamed "The Giant Squid", is to our knowledge the bipolar outflow with the largest angular size ever found. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae.
When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in and We used the least-squares deconvolution LSD technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars.
We then provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging ZDI , activity indicators monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models, including rotation, to infer the evolutionary status of our giants, as well as their initial rotation velocity on the main sequence, and we interpret our observational results in the light of the theoretical Rossby numbers.
Its longitudinal component Bl reaches 40 G and presents an about sinusoidal variation with reversal of the polarity. The magnetic topology of OU And is dominated by large-scale elements and is mainly poloidal with an important dipole component, as well as a significant toroidal component. The detected magnetic field of 31 Comae 31 Com is weaker, with a magnetic map showing a more complex field geometry, and poloidal and toroidal components of equal contributions. Water resources between conditions of quality and quantity in the Oued Souf region! Waters from the Terminal complex TC in the Souf region have been gushing since Spring through the first drilling carried out in the municipality of Guemmar El- Oued to ensure the need for drinking water requirements.
These needs are causing negative consequences for the serene life of the Souafa by the phenomenon of water upwellings, the free water table, and the change in the quality of the waters from the Terminal complex. Our work will be conducted to produce a piezometric map of the Souf Terminal complex and to conduct a study on the quality of water resources in the Algerian south-east, leading to a diagnosis of pollution and its impact on the water. The quality of water resources is examined by the establishment of sampling and water analysis campaigns for both irrigation and public consumption, following the static measurement of water levels in the network boreholes of TC Monitoring.
Integrated quantum photonic sensor based on Hong- Ou -Mandel interference. Photonic-crystal-based integrated optical systems have been used for a broad range of sensing applications with great success.
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This has been motivated by several advantages such as high sensitivity, miniaturization, remote sensing, selectivity and stability. Many photonic crystal sensors have been proposed with various fabrication designs that result in improved optical properties. In parallel, integrated optical systems are being pursued as a platform for photonic quantum information processing using linear optics and Fock states. Here we propose a novel integrated Fock state optical sensor architecture that can be used for force, refractive index and possibly local temperature detection.
In this scheme, two coupled cavities behave as an "effective beam splitter". The sensor works based on fourth order interference the Hong- Ou -Mandel effect and requires a sequence of single photon pulses and consequently has low pulse power. Changes in the parameter to be measured induce variations in the effective beam splitter reflectivity and result in changes to the visibility of interference.
We demonstrate this generic scheme in coupled L3 photonic crystal cavities as an example and find that this system, which only relies on photon coincidence detection and does not need any spectral resolution, can estimate forces as small as 10 -7 Newtons and can measure one part per million change in refractive index using a very low input power of 10 W. Thus linear optical quantum photonic architectures can achieve comparable sensor performance to semiclassical devices.
The realization of quantum networks and long distance quantum communication rely on the capability of generating entanglement between separated nodes.
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We demonstrate the compatibility of two different sources of single photons: a single atom and four-wave mixing in a cold cloud of atoms. The four-wave mixing process in a cloud of cold 87Rb generates photon pairs. The cascade level scheme used ensures the generation of heralded single photons with exponentially decaying temporal envelope. The heralded and the triggered photons are launched into a Houng- Ou -Mandel interferometer: a symmetrical beam-splitter with outputs connected to single photon detectors. Soil and groundwater at this site became contaminated by fuels and solvents that were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area FDA as part of firefighter training from and Soil excavation and bioremediation were initiated at the site of fire training activities in the late s.
Since that time a pump-and-treat operation has been operated close to the original area of contamination, and this system has been largely successful at reducing groundwater contamination in this source area. However, a trichloroethylene TCE groundwater plume extends approximately ft m to the northwest away from the FDA.
In this report, we have augmented flow monitoring equipment permanently installed in an earlier project Oldenburg et al. All three devices produce groundwater. The dating of the fourth volume of Guillaume-Antoine Olivier's "Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des insectes". Despite the title page is dated , the fourth volume of Olivier's Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des insectes was issued in two parts, one probably in and the second in All new taxa made available in this work have previously been dated in the literature.
A list of new species described in and a list of those that have to be dated are appended. The genus Necrobia should be credited to Latreille, , not Olivier, Resumo Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente jovem previamente submetida a nefrectomia direita por apresentar angiomiolipomas renais AMLRs e portadora de dois volumosos angiomiolipomas no rim esquerdo remanescente. A paciente foi encaminhada pelo urologista para tratamento endovascular.
This EA strategy addresses the residual areas of elevated cVOCs in soil and groundwater while minimizing the rebound of groundwater concentrations above regulatory targets e. The EA strategy has improved confidence and reduced risk on the OU -1 groundwater transition path to monitored natural attenuation MNA.
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To better evaluate the EA strategy, DOE is conducting a field demonstration to evaluate the use of edible oils to enhance the natural attenuation processes. The field demonstration is designed to determine whether structured geochemical zones can be established that expedite the attenuation of cVOCs in the OU -1 groundwater.
The anaerobic zones stimulate relatively rapid degradation of the original solvent source compounds e. The surrounding aerobic areas encourage relatively rapid degradation of daughter products such as dichloroethene [DCE] and vinyl chloride [VC] as well as enhanced cometabolism of TCE. Characterization and geostatistical mapping of water salinity: A case study of terminal complex in the Oued Righ Valley southern Algeria. The present study is focused on the water from CT aquifer in order to characterize their salinity using geostatistical tool for maping.
Indeed, water in this aquifer show a high mineralization exceeding the OMS standards. The main hydro-chemical facies of this water is Chloride-Sodium and Sulfate-Sodium. The elementary statistics have been performed on the physico-chemical analysis from 97 wells whereas wells were analyzed on salinity and are used for the geostatistical mapping. The obtained results show a spatial evolution of the salinity toward the direction South to the North.
The salinity is locally strong in the central part of Oued Righ valley. The automatic mapping is used to visualize the distribution of the kriged probabilities of salinity. These results can help to ensure a rational and a selective exploitation of groundwater according the salinity contents.
Water quality assessment of highly polluted rivers in a semi-arid Mediterranean zone Oued Fez and Sebou River Morocco. Oued Fez one of the Sebou River tributaries - Morocco allowed us to study and quantify the effect of the lack of wastewater treatment on surface water quality in semi-arid hydrological context. The analysis is based on field data collected from June to December Concentration and load patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and chromium used in the processing of leather are compared in stable hydrological conditions during low flow and high flow periods in an eight-location sampling network.
The most polluted sites are those directly under the influence of domestic and industrial waste water inputs, particularly tannery effluents. Obviously, the concentrations measured at these locations are above all environmental quality standards. Pollutant loads are very heavy in the Sebou River and can contaminate the river course for kilometres.
Moreover, as the water of the Sebou River is used for the irrigation of vegetables, serious problems of public health could arise. A better understanding of contaminant dynamics and self-purifying processes in these rivers will help implement actions and steps aimed at improving water quality in the Sebou River, which is the primary water supply source in Morocco and is used for agricultural and industrials purposes as well as for drinking water. This report presents a continuation from Oldenburg et al. This activity resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in the unconfined A-aquifer.
Shortly thereafter, a groundwater pump, treat, and recharge system commenced operation. This system has been largely successful at remediating groundwater contamination at the head of the groundwater plume. In the analyses presented here, we augment our prior work Oldenburg et al.