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In other words, the law of the inverse relation between knowledge and hostility fails to hold at the extreme degree of hostility p. As we can see, one might think that increased knowledge of an ethnic group would lead directly to positive attitude, but it does not follow that attitudes will change. One may, for example, learn that Hispanic blood is not different in composition from Caucasian blood without thereby learning to like Mexicans or Cubans.

Plenty of rationalizations for prejudice and stereotyping are available to people who have a good deal of sound knowledge. It focuses on intercultural and interethnic encounters between in-groups and outgroups and assumes that individuals attempt to reduce uncertainty in initial interactions with strangers.

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Interethnic encounters between people where obvious differences exist trigger doubts and fears. It is cognitive. Anxiety is the feeling of being uneasy, tense, or apprehensive about what might happen. It is affective. Anxiety and uncertainty are the basic causes of communication failure in interethnic situations.

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Besides, during intercultural or interethnic encounters, people tend to overestimate the effect of cultural identity on the behavior of a group in an alien society and blur individual distinctions. Consequently, stereotyping and prejudice emerge. In order to avoid interethnic miscommunication — which oftentimes leads to stereotyping and prejudice — one needs to communicate more effectively through conscious competence, that is, the state of thinking about our communication and continually working at changing what we do in order to become more effective in interethnic encounters Gudykunst, Consciousness competence is also called mindfulness.

Mindfulness is the process of thinking in new categories, being open to new information, and recognizing multiple perspectives.

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Many times they would have to find different ways to communicate, such as nonverbal signals, to be more effective. Since it increases the liking of the other group, it decreases the use of stereotyping and prejudice on the part of the in-group.

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As one can see, knowledge is one of the main factors that can effect the levels of anxiety and uncertainty in interethnic encounters Gudykunst, The fact that one is open to new information and motivated to gain knowledge about and experience the culture of an ethnic group helps ease the uncertainty and anxiety.

Increased knowledge of another group leads to increased liking of the group and, by the same token, a reduction of the use of stereotypes and prejudice. It is a strong theory that directly deals with effective communication through a process of minimizing misunderstanding and gaining more knowledge of the other ethnic group. Understanding AUM may help us explain and predict our own interactions with others in our own environments. Indeed, it has significant explanatory power for explaining human behavior and is predictive in that it claims the same process occurs for each encounter between strangers.

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  • However, AUM is somewhat difficult to maneuver. For instance, it seems that the theory does not thoroughly describe the role of self and self-concept in interaction with strangers. In other words, AUM only gives a broad picture of cultural encounters of in-groups and out-groups. Furthermore, it is very complex in that it has many different explanations for phenomena that happen in situations within the intercultural context.

    The theory posits a limited number of viable ways of life, consisting of patterns of social relations. It also helps us think about the way other groups behave, as well as their reasoning. It analyzes various practices, draws out underlying patterns, and attempts to explain underlying similarities and differences between different groups without tying them to outward criteria such as wealth, religion, and so on Douglas, In a similar fashion, the theory suggests that ways of life are composed of coherent, consistent packages of preferences and biases.

    Such preferences and biases, not surprisingly, lead to intergroup conflict. Ethnic group members will be biased towards their own groups and use generalizations stereotyping , prejudice, and other forms of discrimination to describe other ethnic groups.

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    In addition, within a community, there will be a variety of cultural biases among groups that com-. One group may predominate and define terms for the community, but there will generally be competing ways of life. These ways of life will be found in dissenting groups or practices and embedded within dominant institutions Wildavsky, One major study was conducted in Nigeria Spalding, , where the three dominant ethnic groups are the Husas, the Ibos, and the Yorubas. The three societies distinguish themselves by their ethnic preferences, biases, and attitudes, and above all, ethnocentrism.

    The Hausa society is organized on strong hierarchical principles, with many prescriptions, clear status differentials, and a strong group sense.

    Hence, the Hausas identify with their fellow group members, have poor knowledge about the Ibos and the Yorubas, whom they despise too, and follow the rules appropriate for their station in life. The Ibos, in contrast, are individualist; they value merit and personal achievement rather than ascription determined status; high rank is open to all; and group obligations are limited.

    They seek freedom, merit and competition, rather than order, as legitimate driving forces of society, and believe they have the unassailable right to compete openly. They have poor knowledge about the two other societies and display a negative attitude towards them. This research shows that Cultural Theory adds to our understanding of the situation among ethnic groups, such as those in Nigeria.

    Overall, the theory is powerful in that it does not only suggest that all members of a community share one way of life, but also that there are a limited number of viable ways of life between which people will move, which, in turn, will have an effect on how those people view other ethnic groups. Since ethnic groups have different ways of life, every member will concentrate on their own group, gain knowledge about their own group, but not about other groups. However, if the three ethnic groups possess more knowledge about one another, they would like each other better, and, therefore, be less prejudiced.

    Each way of life has its own costs and benefits, so there are consequences on intergroup relations, oftentimes resulting in conflict, stereotyping, discrimination, and, above all, ethnocentrism. It helps to explain why people have preferences, attitudes, and biases, and why they accept some circumstances and challenge others. However, Cultural Theory presents an important limitation. Although it describes clearly the position of a group in a given society, it does not compare the hierarchical status of different groups in a same environment, which could have helped readers to better understand why the Hausas, Ibos, and Yorubas are in conflict in Nigeria.

    Explaining intergroup tensions by their preferences, biases, or attitudes is insufficient if one does not. The theory rests on the premise that White individuals express certain feelings, behaviors, and attitudes towards other ethnic groups to deal with race-related information and incidents. Racial identification also occurs in response to the sociopolitical reality of the differential allocation of resources to racial groups. In contrast, other racial groups such as African Americans have experienced racial victimization.

    Another premise of the theory is that racial identity typically develops as people move from a lack of knowledge of their own racial background to knowledge and integration of their race in comparison with other races Daniel, What is critical in the White Racial Identity Development Model is that it focuses on a set of emotional, behavioral, and knowledge-related processes that the individual uses to interpret and therefore interact with racial information in his or her environment.

    Helms proposed that more advanced statuses of racial identity allow for greater complexity in intrapersonal as well as interpersonal processes, especially when faced with ethnic groups one does not know. A number of people who experience discrimination through stereotyping and prejudice cope through reliance on family and other community supports, while others seek professional help.

    The majority of counselors are White, which oftentimes makes their experiences with discrimination limited. It is not surprising that higher levels of moral awareness, reasoning, and understanding, as demonstrated by the ability to use multiple cognitive schemas, have been associated with more advanced stages of White racial identity among European American counselor trainees. For instance, initial meetings between counselors and their ethnic minority clients would be considered congruent if they were based on direct familiarity or experience with divergent racial or ethnic groups rather than didactic lectures.

    In addition, once intimacy has been established, longer term intervention strategies may be used i. The theory also encourages the integration of race and ethnic-related concepts into mainstream psychological constructs, thereby providing more depth to studies using the theory. More importantly, the theory provides a solid scientific and objective base for anyone interested in genuinely fostering meaningful interracial cooperation in society. Discussion What is valuable about those theories on knowledge, stereotyping, and prejudice is that they attempt to integrate communication into a perspective on cultural, behavioral, social, interactional, and developmental transformations.

    The contact hypothesis, on the other hand, posits that knowledge of another ethnic group does not always lead directly to positive attitude towards the group. What those four theories have in common is that the understanding and development of healthy interethnic relations and flexible interactions require a high degree of in-group communication and, at the same time, an equally high degree of out-group communication.

    Nevertheless, more work needs to be done in interethnic communication. Some theories have provided only a sketchy, fragmented picture of ethnic issues, both because of limitations in the theoretical frameworks used for studying aspects such as stereotyping, discrimination, and prejudice, and because of methodological problems in the researches themselves.

    Similarly, when compared, theories or studies on the same issues have drawn on widely differing theoretical frameworks. Moreover, theories tend to generalize, pigeonhole, and categorize members of ethnic groups, without taking into consideration the individual experiences and backgrounds of members of those ethnic groups.

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    They should also emphasize that individual preferences and biases in an ethnic group play a major role. Even though culture provides the cues that can be exploited to rally support, Cultural Theory should explain those cues by systematically addressing issue content and preferences concerning individual outcomes, which define the specific direction or shape interethnic conflict takes.

    By the same token, Cultural Theory will better explain why individuals accept some circumstances and challenge others. In addition, research is needed to continue to validate the White racial identity core theoretical positions such as the existence of knowledge-related and cognitive domains within White racial identity statuses, which would enable researchers to better explain why ingroups resort to using stereotypes and employing prejudice towards out-group members.

    Given that racial and ego attitudes at low developmental levels are incompatible with effective interethnic communication, researchers should focus more on assessing racial identity and ego developmental levels and ways to promote positive change. Concerning Anxiety Uncertainty Management AUM Theory, since anxiety and uncertainty are the basic causes of communication failure in interethnic situations, an approach considered by Gudykunst is to adopt mindfulness or consciousness competence to avoid interethnic miscommunication, which oftentimes leads to stereotyping and prejudice.

    However, being effective in that sense is an active not a passive process. The theory tells how an in-group should behave towards the outgroup, but does not tell much about how the out-group perceives the in-group.